LiNbO3 is widely used as electro-optic modulator and Q-switch for Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Ti:Sapphire lasers as well as modulator for fiber optics, etc. The transverse modulation is mostly employed for LiNbO3 crystal.

If a LiNbO3 with specifications listed in the following Table is used as Q-switch crystal, i.e., the light propagates in z-axis and electric field applies to x-axis, the refractive retardation will be G = pLnr22V/ld. The electro-optic coefficients of LiNbO3 are: r33 = 32 pm/V, r31 = 10 pm/V, r22 = 6.8 pm/V at low frequency and r33 = 31 pm/V, r31 = 8.6 pm/V, r22 = 3.4 pm/V at high electric frequency.

LiNbO3 General specification for Q-Switch
Size 9x9x25mm3 or 4x4x15mm3 , Other size is available upon request
Tolerance of size Z-axis: ± 0.3 mm
X-axis and Y-axis: +/-0.1 mm
Clear aperture  over 90% central diameter
Chamfer less than 0.5 mm at 45°
Accuracy of orientation Z-axis: <± 5'
X-axis and Y-axis: < ± 10'
Parallelism <10 arc sec
Finish 10/5 scratch/dig
Flatness l/8 at 632.8 nm
Electrodes Gold or Cr electrode on X-faces
Wavefront Distortion <l/4 at 632.8 nm
Extinction Ratio >400:1 @ 633nm, Dia 6mm beam

Note: The damage threshold of LiNbO3 is low. It is not suitable to high power application. MgO:LiNbO3, Fe:LiNbO3 and ZnO:LiNbO3 crystals have similar electro-optic properties to LiNbO3 but with higher damage threshold. Dream Lasers provides these crystals with the same specifications of LiNbO3 listed in the above Table.