The yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4) is a positive uniaxial crystal grown with Czochralski method. It has good mechanical and physical properties and is ideal for optical polarizing components because of its wide transparency range and large birefringence. It is an excellent synthetic substitute for Calcite (CaCO3) and Rutile (TiO2) crystals in many applications including fiber optic isolators and circulators, beam displacers, Glan polarizers and other polarizing optics, etc.

Dream Lasers supplies a wide variety of finished YVO4 crystals. Our standard specifications for YVO4 follows:
Orientation c-axis or a-axis
Diameter max. 25mm
Length max. 30mm
Surface quality 10/5 Scratch and Dig
Beam deviation <3 arc min
Optical axis orientation +/-0.5°
Flatness λ/4 @ 632.8 nm
Transmission wavefront distortion λ/4 @ 632.8 nm
AR-coating R<0.5%
Basic Properties of YVO4 crystals
Transparency Range: high transmittance from 0.4 to 5mm

Transparency Curve of YVO4

Crystal Symmetry
Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h
Crystal Cell: a=b=7.12 Å c=6.29 Å
Density: 4.22 g/cm3
Hygroscopic Susceptibility: Non-hygroscopic
Thermal Expansion Coefficient
aa = 4.43 x 10-6/K; ac = 11.37 x 10-6/K
Thermal Conductivity Coefficient 
C: 5.23 W·m-1·K-1; ⊥C: 5.10W·m-1·K-1
Crystal Class: Positive uniaxial with no=na=nb, ne=nc
Refractive Indices, Birefringence (Δn = ne - no) and Walk-off Angle at 45º (ρ):
no = 1. 9929, ne = 2.2154, Δn = 0.2225, ρ = 6.04º at 0.63 mm
no = 1.9500, ne = 2.1554, Δn = 0.2054, ρ = 5.72º  at 1.30 mm
no = 1.9447, ne = 2.1486, Δn = 0.2039, ρ = 5.69º  at 1.55 mm
Sellmeier Equation (λ in μm):
n2(λ) = 3.77834 + 0.069736/(λ2 - 0.04724) - 0.0108133λ2
n2e (λ) = 4.59905 + 0.110534/(λ2 - 0.04813) - 0.0122676λ2
Thermal Optical Coefficient: dna/dT = 8.5x10-6/K; dnc/dT = 3.0x10-6/K
Applications of YVO4 Crystals
YVO4 Beam Displacer
Birefringent Wedges for Fiber-Optic Isolators